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Know About Thyroid Disease, the causes and how to treat it appropriately

Thyroid Disease

Thyroid Disease
is a disorder of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland, which is located in the neck, precisely below the Adam's apple, is one part of the endocrine system that functions to secrete the body's metabolic hormones.

The pituitary gland and hypothalamus in the brain control the working system of the thyroid gland, where if the body has an excess or lack of thyroid hormone, the brain stimulates the thyroid gland to balance its levels with the body's needs. Common thyroid diseases are hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, and thyroid nodules.

Based on the type of disease, thyroid disease can be caused by several factors.


A condition in which there is excessive thyroid hormone production which can be caused by disorders of the pituitary gland system in the brain, damage and inflammation of the thyroid gland.


In contrast to hyperthyroidism, this condition is caused due to underproduction of thyroid hormones. Lack of hormone production can be caused by autoimmune disorders, a history of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, high exposure to iodine, and the influence of drugs containing lithium.


It is a condition of an enlarged thyroid gland caused by a deficiency of iodine in daily nutritional intake.

Thyroid nodules

Is a lump that grows on the thyroid gland. This lump can be solid or filled with fluid. This condition is generally caused due to iodine deficiency and Hashimoto's disease in hypothyroid cases.

The clinical manifestations of thyroid disease vary depending on the type of thyroid disease experienced, but are broadly divided into 2, namely conditions of excessive and deficient hormone production. In cases where thyroid disease is caused due to overproduction it can give symptoms such as weight loss, thinning skin, brittle nails and hair, enlarged and bulging eyes, palpitations, excessive sweating, weakness of body muscles, body shaking, difficulty sleeping, anxiety and restlessness.

Whereas in the case of thyroid disease caused by a lack of hormone production, it can cause symptoms such as dry skin, sensitivity to cold temperatures, decreased memory ability, weight gain, slow heart rate, constipation, weakness and depression.

Diagnosis of thyroid disease consists of several phases, starting from the history, physical examination, and supporting examinations such as laboratory and radiological examinations. The history will be evaluated regarding complaints, medical history, medical history, family history of disease, and the patient's lifestyle and diet. Furthermore, a physical examination is carried out to assess whether there are clinical manifestations consistent with the condition of the thyroid disease.

Laboratory tests used to detect thyroid disease are the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood, thyroid gland function TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), and antibodies to the thyroid gland tissue. In general, an enlarged thyroid gland can be found on a physical examination, but to better assess the condition of the thyroid gland, ultrasonography (USG) and radioactive iodine scanning can be used.

A fine needle aspiration biopsy procedure can also be performed to take samples of thyroid gland tissue and to find out what types of cells are present in the lump, whether it is malignant or otherwise.

Treatment of thyroid disease is distinguished by the type and cause of the disease. In general, there are three ways of treating thyroid disease, namely by medical therapy (drugs), radioactive iodine ablation therapy, and / or surgical procedures. Medical therapy can be given to reduce or prevent thyroid hormone production, or to replace hormone deficiencies caused by hypothyroid conditions.

Other drugs that are given function to overcome comorbid complaints such as palpitations. In cases of hyperthyroidism, if drug administration does not work, radioactive iodine ablation therapy is performed to selectively destroy thyroid tissue. Surgical treatment is performed to remove large goiter or overactive thyroid nodules, as well as if thyroid cancer is possible.

In cases where the patient needs to have a surgical removal of the thyroid gland, then synthetic thyroid hormone will be given afterwards to meet the daily needs of thyroid hormone.


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