What is Psychology? Understand the Definition, Types, and Purpose

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What is Psychology? Understand the Definition, Types, and Purpose

What is psychology? Psychology is a discipline that studies more deeply about the mind, mental and human behavior. This science will examine the flow of human thought. In addition, this science also examines the reasons behind human actions and behavior.

Understanding what psychology is can make us learn about human behavior, so psychology is often used to find solutions or solve the right problem. Especially in a number of complex human activities.

Another opinion says the meaning of psychology is the study of human behavior and psyche. In practice, psychology conducts observations and analyzes of an organism based on experience gained through the five senses.

The following is a review of what psychology is according to experts, along with its types and purposes, which we have summarized from various sources.

Understanding Psychology According to Experts

What is psychology? In general, psychology is a field of science and applied science that studies behavior, mental functions, and human mental processes through scientific procedures. However, different opinions according to experts regarding what psychology is. The following is an explanation of what psychology is according to experts, viz.

Muhibbin Shah

According to Muhibbin Syah, the notion of psychology is a science that studies open behavior (talking, sitting, walking, etc.) and closed behavior (thinking, believing, feeling) in humans, both as individuals and groups, in relation to the environment.

Wilhem Wundt

According to Wilhem Wundt (1829), the notion of psychology is a science that studies the various experiences that occur in humans; such as the five senses, feelings, thoughts, and wills.

Kurt Koffka

According to Kurt Koffka (1925), the notion of psychology is a science that studies the behavior of living things in their relationship with the outside world.

Singgih Dirgagunarsa

According to Singgih Dirgagunarsa, the definition of psychology is a science that studies human behavior.

Richard Mayer (1981)

Psychology is an analysis of mental processes and memory structures to understand human behavior.

Bruno (1987)
Understanding Psychology is divided into three parts, namely: First, psychology is the study (investigation) of "spirit". Second, psychology is the science of "mental life". Third, psychology is the science of the "behavior" of organisms.

Types of Psychology

After understanding what psychology is, it is also important to know the types of psychology. The following are the types of psychology, including:

1. General and Experimental Psychology

This first branch of psychology focuses on discussing research or experiments in psychology. You will be taught about how a psychological research is carried out using equipment or various scientific methods so that it has high accuracy. In short, this branch of science will help to help to detail, describe, explain, predict, and control psychological processes.

2. Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology is the specification that will lead you to become a psychologist. In this specification you will study patterns of human behavior in more focused and in-depth cases. You are out of the general pattern, and ready to deal with a wide variety of human mental disorders.

3. Developmental Psychology

This branch of psychology is a branch that focuses on the process of human mental development. In this field I will be prepared to make observations on cases of psychological development from children to the elderly. Developmental psychology allows you to know how humans develop, to recognize disturbances or crises that occur, to determine how to deal with them.

4. Industrial and Organizational Psychology

In an industry, organization or office there are many aspects of psychology and need to be discussed and understood. Industrial and Organizational Psychology (PIO) is a branch of psychology that specializes in studying this subject. PIO will prepare you for a position in human resources (HRD) in a company.

5. Educational Psychology

As the most crucial part in human life, education is something that has a close relationship with psychology. For example, how is the right education for children at a certain age. With educational psychology, you will be able to make a mapping of the need and appropriateness of education for various situations and conditions.

6. Social Psychology

As social beings, humans are always involved with other people in their lives. The psychological conditions of human interaction as social beings are studied and discussed in social psychology. This field explains how social conflict can occur to how a person can have problems in social interactions.

The Function of Psychology as a Science

Basically psychology as a scientific study has 4 functions. Referring to the notion of psychology, some of the functions of psychology are as follows:

1. Describe (Description)

In this case, psychology serves to describe and classify a scientific observation in detail. The aim is to describe various human behaviors in their lives.

2. Explain (Explain)

In this case, psychology functions to identify and explain what, how, and why a behavior occurs. The result of the explanation is in the form of a descriptive discussion.

3. Predict (Prediction)

In this case, psychology can function to predict what, how, and why a behavior occurs. The results of these predictions can be in the form of prognosis, estimation or prediction.

4. Control

In this case, psychology can function to control behavior so that it is as expected. The form of this control is in the form of prevention, intervention, and rehabilitation.

Benefits of Studying Psychology

Learning about psychology can provide good benefits for humans, both individually and in groups. Some of the benefits of studying psychology are as follows:

1. Understanding Yourself

For humans, it is very important to understand themselves and their relationship with the environment. By studying psychology, a person can get to know his own personality, character, and can identify psychological problems in himself and others.

2. Understanding the Cause of a Behavior

Those who have a fairly good knowledge of psychology can understand why a person exhibits certain behaviors. There are many psychological theories that explain the causes of certain behaviors, so that one can explain a behavior and how to deal with it.

3. Helping Others

By having a fairly good knowledge of psychology, one can help others in solving their problems. In this case, one does not have to be a psychologist, but at least knows psychological theories so that one can see a problem from a different perspective and provide a choice of solutions to deal with it.

Psychology Goals

Human life will not be separated from the existence of problems. Psychology helps humans in dealing with and finding solutions to the problems they face, because the goals of psychology are as follows:

  1. Make life better and happier.
  2. Knowing the actions of the soul and the ability of the soul as a means to recognize human behavior.
  3. To gain an understanding of the symptoms of the soul and a better understanding of human behavior.
  4. So that there is no doubt in changing the way of life, behavior and relationships in society.
  5. To know the implementation of good education.

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